Our research examines the general congruence between the principles, norms, and ideological guidelines expressed and imposed by the official propaganda and the Communist mass media on the one hand and the way in which these norms and guidelines have been internalized and practiced by women, on the other hand. This intricate relationship, between women and propaganda is one of mutual influence. For that, we assume individuals to me more than passive receptors of information, and rather are critical receivers, perfectly able to weight, react to, and sometimes reject the ideological requirements placed upon them. To capture the subtleties of this relationship, we need to be able to carefully examine their subjective safe-placement of individuals, best done through narrative interviews. Our assumption is that women have their own narrative of their lives under communism, which should not be assessed, inevitably, through the lenses of Western feminism (centered on the triadic relation between house work – paid work – children rearing). The analysis of these narratives enables us to understand the impact of the ideological pressure and the ways in which women conceived of their own civicness and how they lived their embodied citizenship. In addition, this approach can assist us in identifying currently unexplored sources of women empowerment.


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